Bibliography of the history of cartography of The Netherlands
During the Imago Mundi Conference on the History of cartography in Sweden 1991 the 3rd preliminary edition of the Bibliography of the History of Cartography of The Netherlands, compiled by Marc Hameleers and Peter van der Krogt, was presented. The bibliography contains 3,085 references, an author-index, a personal name index and an index of toponyms, based on the regional classification of the CCK. The compilers strive towards completeness, but they are very much aware that this is only possible if 'foreign' titles are submitted. Anyone whith informatrion of 'foreign' titles concerning the history of Dutch cartography is requested to contribute these to the compilers (Drs. M.M.Th.L. Hameleers, Gemeentearchief Amsterdam, Amsteldijk 67, NL-1074 HZ Amsterdam; Dr. P.C.J. van der Krogt, Mijerstraat 20, NL-2613 XM Delft). They hope to publish a definite edition in 1993.
In 1973 the first edition of the Multilingual Dictionary of Technical terms in Cartography (MD1) was published. In 1976 the International Cartographic Association (ICA) started to work on the 2nd edition. Unfortunately the work stagnated and has not yet been published. Fortunately the Working Group for Cartographical Terminology of the Dutch Cartographic Society (NVK), which had assisted in the preparation of this 2nd edition (MD2), did not wish to see the efforts wasted. Therefore the NVK decided to publish a Dutch Cartographical Dictionary, basing its choice of terms and the categorization and numbering on the manuscript MD2. However when the work was finished the working group decided to revise the whole considerably, arranging the dictionary according to its own scheme. The dictionary was first published in sections in the Kartografisch Tijdschrift (Cartographical journal) between 1985 and 1987. As a retirement present to one of its atlas-editors (who was also chairman of the working group) the firm Wolters-Noordhoff printed the 2,000 copies of the final edition free of charge. Every member of the NVK received a free copy. The 155 page publication contains the following chapters:
1. Cartography: sub fields, professions, organizations
2. Map and map-series
3. Mathematical cartography
4. Cartographical rendering
5. Mapping, editing, updating
6. Cartographical techniques
7. Printing of maps
8. Cartographical products
10. Digital information processing
Many terms are illustrated and equivalents in English, French and German are given, when possible. There is also an English, French, German and Dutch index.
The NVK presented its 'National Report' to the 9th General Assembly and 15th World Conference of ICA in Bournemouth (UK) in 1991 not in the usual hard copy, but in a digital form. The programme was created in cooperation with the Centre for Computer Graphics and Mapping of the Polytechnic University in Delft. It contains the National Report and 10 chapters about map- producing agencies. For each agency is displayed one or more detail maps. The report is completed with a list of addresses of 14 other major map-producers, which has been compiled by the Royal Library. The graphics have been adapted to a VGA colour-screen and can be run on any IBM PC or compatible.
Leiden University Library, Groningen University Library and the Royal Institute of Linguistic and Anthropology (Leiden) have so far added 12,500 map-descriptions to the PICA-database (Project Integrated Catalogue Automation, ca. 300 libraries, 10,000,000 items). An index definition table for an OPAC for maps has been drawn up on request of the 2 university libraries. This OPAC will be available to the general public in 1993. Pica also has published an updated edition of the manual for processing of map-descriptions.
The CCK (the national automated map-catalogue/documentation system, of which the user- interface operates in a window-environment) will become operational in October 1992. This means that offline and online processing is possible, that one can edit the database and use all other necessary cataloguing. Output has already been made in 1991 for one participant. In 1992 the Bibliography of cartographic materials published in the Netherlands 1987 has been produces using PostScript. The CCK-database consists at present of ca. 55,000 map-descriptions and ca. 35,000 thesaurus-records.
The CCK area classification amongs others has been adopted in the Dutch Basic Classification, which is used for the 'Common Subject Indexing' and the 'Co-ordination of Collection Building' of libraries which co-operate within Pica.
There has been a meeting between officials representing Pica and CCK, concerned with possible cooperation. Pica's point of view is that after the CCK has worked some time with its system now in operation, there will be consultations to see if activities can be co-ordinated.
Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Sectie Kartografische Documentatie (Royal Library, Section on Cartographical Documentation)
From 1 January 1992 the Royal Library has formed a 'Section Cartographical Documentation' within the 'Department for Library Research and Scientific Documentation'. The section comprises the CCK (cataloguing system for cartographic materials), the Office for Maps and the KIC (the embryonic cartographic information centre). In this section (together 4½ professional staff) all activities of the Royal Library concerning cartography and its documentation are brought together. Besides existing activities, mainly concerned with the CCK and the Bibliography of maps of The Netherlands, this will mean that older and foreign cartographic holdings of the Royal Library will be inventoried and possibly accessed through the CCK. The section, in co-operation with the Dutch Cartographic Society, will publish as soon as possible the second edition of the Directory of Dutch Map Collections. Furthermore the Royal Library hopes this year to start publishing again the Bibliography of Cartographic Materials published in The Netherlands, starting with the annual volume for 1987.
In 1991 the nineteenth century maps belonging to the map archives of the (former) Colonial Office were deposited in the General State Archive. Furthermore the inventory of approximately 15,000 map-sheets belonging to the map archive of the Hydrographic Office was finished.
Some 50,000 photographs of maps and drawings were made on microfiche (6 images per fiche) and became available in the Map Room in 1992. Included amongst these were some 35,000 drawings of the State Building Service, of which some 70% of the originals were subsequently destroyed.
Werkgroep kaartbeheer NVK (Working Group for Mapcuratorschip)
The working group has organized the following study-days:
Autumn 1990: "Organization, production and use of facsimiles of atlases and maps". The programme dealt with the history of facsimile-publishing, the setting up of guide-lines as to what criteria facsimiles and accompanying texts should meet (later published by Marc Hameleers in Caert-Thresoor, 1992, nr. 1 under the title: Maps in facsimile: is it allowed to make demands?), and present day facsimile-publishing. A small exhibition by the Topographic Survey showed many examples.
Spring 1991: "Availability and accessibility of cartographic information". During the morning session a discussion was held about the possibilities and role of a possible 'cartographic information centre'. In the afternoon there were papers about NexpRI (a databank where GIS-databases are made accessible), the description of digital maps, and the possible uses of satellite-images and how to order them from the ESA National Focus Point.
Spring 1992: "Decay and Preservation: present also in your collection!" There were papers on self-help in conservation, the influence of xerox-copying on the ageing of maps, practical problems with copyright on digital maps, application of the DEZ-mass- deacidification process, and the possibilities of CD-ROM for conservation.
The study days were attended by 40-50 mapcurators.
Other activities of the working group concentrated on the problems of a cartographic information centre and on the 2nd edition of the Guide to map-collections in The Netherlands.
Related to the activities of the working group was the study-day "Documentation of spatial information II", which was organized by the Royal Library and the Department of Cartography of the University of Utrecht in early 1992. Here papers were read on recent developments in spatial information, official policies concerning (small-scale) spatial information, and the documentation of different kinds of spatial information in an automated surrounding. In the afternoon there was a thorough introduction into the new possibilities of the CCK, with demonstrations. This study-day was attended by over 100 people.
The 1990/1991 course (as described in the interim-report Education in Mapcuratorship in The Netherlands, appended to the Minutes of the LIBER-meeting in Paris 1990), had 13 students, of which 12 were successful in their examinations. This brings the total for this course on 39 certificated curators since 1987 (together with the Tiele-course of 1983-1985 this comes to 63 certificated curators).
The course 'Map and atlas curatorship GO-H' will run for the fourth time from September 1992 to June 1993. The contents have not changed much compared to the previous one. After 10 years of intensive schooling this is probably the last time this course will take place, as only 14 students could be found for this year. It is economically not realistic to run the course for fewer students.
The same education committee in cooperation with the Reinwardt Academy (a tertiary school for Museum management), manages a short course "Accessing of Collections of Artefacts and Visual Materials". This course -which took place in March 1992 and was attended by 24 people- is meant for staff in museums, archives and similar institutions, who deal with museum artefacts, technical drawings, geographical maps, microforms, photographs, prints, audio-visual materials, video, etc. The course takes three days and covers the following topics:
Analysis of information needs 1 hour
Processing of data 3 hours
Selection means and selection methods 3 hours
Information systems 2 hours
Choice of systems 2 hours
Systems and uses 2 hours
Internal organisation 1 hour
External organisation 1 hour
The education committee is still contemplating short courses for photo-documentation, technical drawings or audio-visual materials, but it takes considerable administrative effort to organize each separate course. The short courses are given in the alternate years when there is no main course, as this has now a two-year cycle.
Heaven and earth : worlds of imagination.
Bonnefantenmuseum, Maastricht, 23 November 1991 – 23 February 1992.
Catalogue: Hemel en aarde : werelden van verbeelding / samenstelling en red. Sorin Alexandrescu, Herman Parret, Ton Quik. — Amsterdam : Benjamins, 1991. — IX, 280 p.,  p. col. ill. ; 24 cm.
The catalogue contains essays by Philippe Dubois, Hubert Damisch, Omar Calabrese, Italo Calvino, Umberto Eco, Manar Hamad, Gerard J. van den Broek, Jean-Marie Floch, Claude Bérard, Sorin Alexandrescu, Louis Marin, Herman Parret and Paolo Fabbri which describe heaven and earth as exploration areas for semiology, the science of symbols and signs. The exhibition section concerning geographical fantasy consisted of 47 items (maps, prints, globes).
An armchair traveller : the atlas of Laurens van der Hem (1621-1678)
Koninklijk Paleis, Amsterdam, 18 June – 6 September 1992.
Catalogue: Een wereldreiziger op papier : de atlas van Laurens van der Hem (1621-1678). — Amsterdam : Stichting Koninklijk Paleis, 1992. –160 p. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Preface: Jacobine E. Huisken, Friso Lammertse; Essay by Roelof van Gelder (with English Summary); Catalogue by Jan van der Waals.
This exhibition was constructed around two volumes and 23 leaves of the 'Van der Hem-atlas' of the Austrian National Library. The 23 leaves were taken from their original bindings to be better able to exhibit them. Besides many maps, townplans, views and prints and two Blaeu-globes were exhibited. The catalogue describes 162 items, with notes.
Jan Smits, Royal Library, The Hague